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-^'^^^-' ""^'^^Tnitifeg fi-j^ftrt^'^^-'-*^'-^^ Cornell University Library The original of tiiis book is in tine Cornell University Library. Some samples have a dull wax-like fracture, others a more or less shining or conchoidal fracture. Chinese wax is very slightly soluble in alcohol or ether, but dissolves, with great facility in naphtha, out of which fluid it may be crystallized. Brodie's analyses of the purified wax gave its composition thus — Carbon 82-235 Hydrogen 13-575 Oxygen 4-190 10-0000 which numbers agree with the formula Cjog Hjos 0^.^ Although Chemical the wax is scarcely saponified by being boiled in a solution of caustic potash, it may readily be decomposed by fusion with the solid alkali becoming, as Mr. Vasantagandha, a Sanskrit word meaning spring-fragrance, is, according to Eoxburgh, a designation in the Teliuga or Telugu language of the same red powder. It is generally passed entire, and almost always dead, and in all the cases I have examined (about 15), I was able to detect the head. With a little boiled rice and infusion of the coffee-leaf, a man will support the labours of the field in rice-planting for days and weeks suc- cessively, up to the knees in mud, under a burning sun or drenching rains, which he could not do by the use of simple water, or by the aid of spirituous or fermented liquors. It is likewise referred to by Endlicher (Enchiridion Botdnicum, p. Long slender plants, as grasses, sedges, and many /erw-s, may be doubled once or twice. et Perrott., a tree growing all over the northern part of Central Africa, from Senegambia to Abyssinia, is said to produce the best sort of gum arable. — The small yellow rhizome of Co'ptis Teeta, Wall., a drug known in medicine since a remote period, is produced in the Mishmi mountains to the east of Assam, and probably also somewhere on the confines of China further north.

There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. Some exhibit, when broken, numerous cells containing air and water ; others are more compact. By alcohol ^^■ small portions of a greasy matter may be separated from it, and on distillation it affords traces of acrolein, which is not a product of the pure wax. The melting point of the commercial wax is 181-4" Fahr. Maskelyne has observed, broken up into substances with the formula Cg^ H^g 0^ [cerotin] C54 H54 O4 [cerotic acid], two equivalents of water being as- sumed in the saponification. Maskelyne, in some experi- ments performed subsequently to those of Mr. In the bazaar at Aden, it is known as an article of trade under the name of ^^ , Waras, a word properly signifying saffron. In only two cases do I know of the worm being passed alive. I have Advantages, had opportunity of observing for twenty years the comparative use of the coffee-leaf in one class of natives, and of spirituous liquors in another, the native Sumatrans using the former and the natives of British India settled here the latter, and I find that while the former expose themselv(;s with impunity for any period to every degree of heat, cold, and wet, the latter can endure neither wet nor cold for even a short period without danger to their health. Place them, as quickly after being gathered as you can, side by side, but never put one upon the other, on the same sheet of paper, taking care that one part of the bundle be not materially thicker than the other ; and lay over the speci- mens one, two, three, or more sheets of paper, according to the thickness of your paper and of your plants ; and so on, layer above layer of paper and specimens, and subject the whole to pressure. — Fresh seeds of the Kousso tree, Brayera antlidmin- tica, Kunth, should be procured for cultivation. Frag- ments of the stem, with the gum exuding, from Western as well as from Eastern Africa, are requested, in order to ascertain the identity or diversity of the gum produced by one and the same plant in different localities. — Whether this drug is furnished wholly by Jateorhiza Columha, Miers, or in part by J. desirable, in order that its nature may be investigated. The plant which yields it is very little known, and complete specimens are desirable.

Baltic pitch is a brittle resin, externally transparent, and of Baltic a bright yellowish brown colour, internally pale buif, and very opaque. In answer to some questions, which were asked in the dis- cussion which followed the reading of the paper, Mr. They have thus followed the London College of Physicians, which for nearly a century and a half has included this substance in its Materia Medica, indicating in tlie later editions of its pharmacopoeia a similar botanical origin. 49 White Eesin, White Pitch, Yellow Eesin, Yellow Pitch [ Weisses i867. It is obtained by melting common resin with the frequent Dr. ' I am quite aware that this method of determining the amount of stearoptene is not free from objection, since, the more abundant the elseoptene, the less will the stearoptene (in which it is soluble) be precipitated when the Otto is first treated with alcohol. The so-called Jamaica Sarsaparilla grows near the Chiriqui Lagoon, in the state of Costa Eica, and a species very similar, if not identical with it, at Bajorque, on Ihe Eio Magdalena, New Granada. It is entitled Catalogus Medicamentorum Sinensium quc B Pekini comparanda ei determinanda curavit Alexdnder Tar- tarinov, Doctor Medicince, Medicus Missionis Bossicce Pekinensis spatio annorum 1840 — 1850. — It is in crystals, and obtained in all the northern and central provinces of China. Eehmann enumerates it in his catalogue of Thibetan medicines.^ fe ^IF Naou-sha ; Chloride of Sodium (a peculiar form).

It was formerly called Ehine pitch, to distinguish it from another imported variety now seldom seen, which was desig- nated Baltic pitch. Artificial Burgundy pitch, apparently intended as an imita- Ai-ttficial ^^°^ °^ *^^ ^°^*' ^^^* described (since it strikingly differs from Burgundy the Hamhurg or genuine sort), is manufactured in London and elsewhere, and is sold in bladders, as a clean, brittle resin, very moist, of a fine orange yellow colour, and having but little odour and taste. Other varieties of spurious Burgundy pitch are employed on the Continent, but as they do not occur in English commerce, it seems unnecessary here to describe them. Guibourt's information that it is brought from India, I think there is good circumstantial evidence for ' I must, however, admit that in English trade-lists the two are separately enumerated, the Turkish fetching a higher price. {Fide Molesworth's Marathi and English Dictionary, 2nd. It is, however, often spelt Bosa, Rosia, Rowsah or Reosa. Innes, Esq., of Cairo, quoted in Parkyn's Li^e in Abyssinia, vol. The amount of stearoptene was determined in a Determina- series of parallel experiments, conducted simultaneously by 0**'°"^? The English and French samples experimented upon were obtained direct from the manufacturers, and mostly upon my personal application. certainly, of the absence of rotatory power in the Idris Yaghi, but one which it is fair to mention. There are other resins, of whose origin little is known, which have been imported from Mexico, Brazil, and other parts of tropical America as Elemi. Good botanical specimens, com- prising flowers, fruits, and leaves, and accompanied by the stem and roots, should be carefully preserved, and transmitted to England for determination. Petersburg in 1856, for a copy of which I am indebted to the kindness of Professor Horaninow. Borax is extensively used in China by silversmiths and coppersmiths.^ TC ^ W Tuen-ming-fun ; Sulphate of Soda.

'V.' [The Right of Traiislation and Re/prodwlioa is Reserved. Ordinary Burgundy Pitch is White Eesin which has been gently melted for a short time without the addition of water, so that it is in fact freed from a part of its water, but has not yet acquired the brown colour of colophony. Yet how difficult it would be to point to a specimen of Sarsaparilla as indubi- tably the root of one particular species of Smilax, or to find in our museums a specimen of myrrh or olibanum, or gam- boge, with indisputable data as to its botanical origin and place of production. 1G5 These observations have been suggested by the difficulty ib59. Tlie attention of Englishmen residing in the countries indi- cated is especially requested to this by no means unimportant question. — The drug known under this designation is produced, not in Peru, but in Central America, in a district BALSAM OF PEEU— BALSAM OF TOLU. The catalogue includes the names of 500 substances. Hoffmann and Schultes,^ in which the Latin names of about 600 species are enumerated, together with their equivalents in Japanese and Chinese, the Chinese characters being given.

3 SCIENCE PAPERS 43 ADDRESSES AND MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS ... An inferior kind, called White Pitch, is obtained from the resin that is first pro- duced in the manufacture of tar, and has a brownish-yellow colour. Fix Bur- gundica, is the similarly prepared resin of Picea excelsa and Pinus Pinaster, which is brought into commerce in the form of dull, dirty-yellow brittle masses of a glassy fracture, softening in the hand. Nor is the student of Materia Medica much less in need of authentic or type specimens as standards of comparison. For this determination two or three pounds of each sort of bark are requisite ; and for a perfectly fair experiment they ought to be collected from the same individual tree. The name of each drug, so far as it could be determined, is given in Latin without note or comment. Nor should I omit to mention an Index of Plants of Japan and China, published in 1852 by MM.

S., FELLOW OK THE LINNEAN, CHEMICAL, AND MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON ; MEMBER AND LATE EXAMINER OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN ; MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL LEOPOLDINE-CAROLINE ACADEMY ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE fi OClfrrfe DE PHARMACIE OF PARIS, BRUSSELS, ETC. Nor was I dis- appointed, for among the contributions from Finland, I discovered a suite of specimens illustrating this very subject. To give to these softer candles a hard coating and to prevent their guttering, they are dipped into melted insect- wax often coloured red with alkanet root, — sometimes green with verdigris. Lockhart tells me that the edges of books and the edges of the soles of shoes are rubbed with the wax in order to give them a bright face ; and that it is also rubbed on the brush with which red earthenware is polished.^ ^ Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, vol. externally and internally for a variety of ailments. decoction, which is regarded by them as of peculiar ef Scacy in diseases of the respiratory organs. 8-9 mili " Patria — Persia, prope Kirrind, ubi Ec Tiinopsidis speciem frequentat, cujus plantse caules ab hoc insecto puncti materiam quamdam saccharinam sudant." W. Jackson states, of the Otto made at Ghazeepore, that it melts at 84°.'' Yet the Otto of the London market, as all druggists know, is never found with so high a fusing-point, and, in fact, there is but Fusing point. The balsam, which is called Balsamo negro, is brought for sale to Sonsonate, previously to shipment at Acajutla. K., the tree which affords this substance, is very imperfectly known. In the following list I have thought it best to group the sub- stances described under the simple headings of Calcareous, Mag- nesian, Arsenical, &c., instead of attempting any more scientific arrangement.