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The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity, of which St.

Augustine (De Trin., I, iii, 5), speaking with diffidence, says: "In no other subject is the danger of erring so great, or the progress so difficult, or the fruit of a careful study so appreciable".

But this immanent knowledge is the very essence of the Holy Ghost. He derives His knowledge from Him from Whom He derives His essence." St. Besides, Jesus gives this reason of His assertion: "He shall receive of mine": "All things whatsoever the Father hath, are mine Now, since the Father has with regard to the Holy Ghost the relation we term Active Spiration, the Son has it also; and in the Holy Ghost there exists, consequently, with regard to both, Passive Spiration or Procession.

The latter, therefore, has His origin in the Son, the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son. Cyril of Alexandria remarks that the words: "He shall receive of mine" signify "the nature " which the Holy Ghost has from the Son, as the Son has His from the Father (De Trinit., dialog. (2) The same truth has been constantly held by the Fathers This fact is undisputed as far as the Western Fathers are concerned; but the Greeks deny it in the case of the Easterns.

But he operates especially in the soul, giving it a new life ( Romans 8:9 sq. Tradition While corroborating and explaining the testimony of Scripture, Tradition brings more clearly before us the various stages of the evolution of this doctrine. Clement of Rome gives us important teaching about the Holy Ghost. 909), "to hear us called atheists, us who confess God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Ghost, and hold them one in power and distinct in order [. " Theophilus of Antioch, who sometimes gives to the Holy Ghost, as to the Son, the name of Wisdom (sophia), mentions besides (Ad Autol., lib. L., II, 180); proceeding from the Father through the Son (iv, viii in P. These terms imply a relation of the Spirit to the Son, which can only be a relation of origin. Likewise you hear the Apostle declare: ' God hath sent the Spirit of His Son into your hearts. Why then should you refuse to believe that He proceeds also from the Son, since He is also the Spirit of the Son? G., XXVI, 1212), and concluded: "We say that the Son of God is also the source of the Spirit." (b) The Holy Ghost receives from the Son, according to John -15 : "When he, the Spirit of truth, is come he will teach you all truth.

), being the pledge that God has given us that we are his children ( Romans -16 ; 2 Corinthians ; 5:5 ; Galatians 4:6 ). His "Epistle to the Corinthians" not only tells us that the Spirit inspired and guided the holy writers (viii, 1; xlv, 2); that He is the voice of Jesus Christ speaking to us in the Old Testament (xxii, 1 sq.); but it contains further, two very explicit statements about the Trinity. xlvi, 6 (Funk, "Patres apostolici", 2nd ed., I,158), we read that "we have only one God, one Christ, one only Spirit of grace within us, one same vocation in Christ". which we may compare with the formula so frequently met with in the Old Testament : zo kyrios. This conclusion is so much the more indisputable as all admit the similar argument to explain why the Holy Ghost is called the Spirit of the Father. Could there then be two spirits, one the spirit of the Father, the other the spirit of the Son? Just as there is only one Father, just as there is only one Lord or one Son, so there is only one Spirit, Who is, consequently, the Spirit of both. If He did not proceed from Him, Jesus, when He appeared to His disciples after His Resurrection, would not have breathed on them, saying: 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost'. For he shall not speak of himself; but what things soever he shall hear, he shall speak; and the things that are to come, he shall shew you.

He is the Spirit of God, and at the same time the Spirit of Christ ( Romans 8:9 ); because He is in God, He knows the deepest mysteries of God ( 1 Corinthians -11 ), and He possesses all knowledge. Paul ends his Second Epistle to the Corinthians () with this formula of benediction, which might be called a blessing of the Trinity: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ , and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all." -- Cf. In lviii, 2 (Funk, ibid., 172), the author makes this solemn affirmation ; zo gar ho theos, kai zo ho kyrios Iesous Christos kai to pneuma to hagion, he te pistis kai he elpis ton eklekton, oti . From this it follows that, in Clement's view, kyrios was equally applicable to ho theos (the Father), ho kyrios Iesous Christos , and to pneuma to hagion ; and that we have three witnesses of equal authority, whose Trinity, moreover, is the foundation of Christian faith and hope. 155), in his torments, thus professed his faith in the Three Adorable Persons ("Martyrium sancti Polycarpi" in Funk op. in everything I praise Thee, I bless Thee, I glorify Thee by the eternal and celestial pontiff Jesus Christ, Thy well beloved Son, by whom, to Thee, with Him and with the Holy Ghost, glory now and for ever! Epipodius spoke more distinctly still (Ruinart, "Acta mart.", Verona edition, p. What, indeed, does this breathing signify, but that the Spirit proceeds also from Him? Athanasius had argued in exactly the same way (De Trinit. He shall glorify me; because he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it to you. Therefore I said, that he shall receive of mine, and shew it to you." Now, one Divine Person can receive from another only by Procession, being related to that other as to a principle.